Astable Multivibrator Design using 555 Timer IC


Astable Multivibrator is one of the many uses of 555 IC. Astable means the output is not stable in any position whether it is high or low. It continuously fluctuates between high & low state so we can call it an Oscillator. Here we demonstrate how to design a rectangular wave oscillator using the most popular 555 timer IC and calculate other components value for a required frequency. Lets see the pin allocation of 555 … Continue reading

How to Design a Multiple-Feedback Band-Pass Filter


A Multiple-Feedback Band-Pass filter is one of the Active Band-Pass filters of several designs. This design implements 3 Resistors, 2 Capacitors and 1 Op-Amp (operational amplifier). In this how to design section, we will discuss how to calculate the optimal value of those components. That is, how you can optimize this design to your needs. There are 2 things that a designer must know or wants to implement while designing a Band-Pass filter. The Center … Continue reading

How to Demodulate Binary-FSK (BFSK) Signal in Proteus


To demodulate an FSK signal in Proteus virtually, first we have to build a design (.dsn) file in ISIS. ISIS is the circuit/schematic drawing & simulation tool of Proteus of Labcenter Electronics. Here is given a full guideline and also the ISIS design file of Proteus. It is not customary here to discuss how to use ISIS. Here, we are given an audio file which contains the binary data modulated FSK signal. And we have … Continue reading

Meaning of High Input Impedance & Low Output Impedance of Amplifier


High input impedance and low output impedance is an important terms of electronics circuits designs. In amplifier circuits it is often desirable. I am explaining this characteristic here taking an amplifier as an example. You know that the gain of an amplifier is limited up to an extent. To have the highest amplified signal we desire the input signal to be appeared in the input of the amplifier without any attenuation (loss). We will consider … Continue reading